Posts Tagged ‘Journal of Dairy Science’

Taste and health affect consumer choices for milk and non-dairy beverages

Education on nutritional value and correcting misconceptions should be a focus of the dairy industry, if it is to benefit from recent research findings on consumer behaviour in the US.

The researchers from North Carolina State University used surveys, conjoint analysis, and means-end-chain analysis to uncover the underlying values among dairy milk and non-dairy beverage consumers.

Their aim was to learn more about what affects consumer decisions regarding fluid milk purchases, researchers

The results of the study highlighted the most important factors for both milk and non-dairy beverages, which were the same: they must be healthy and taste good.

In recent years, retail sales of fluid milk have changed significantly and per capita consumption has decreased at a rate of 830 mL per year since 1975.

Between 2011 and 2014, sales of fluid milk have decreased 3.8% but the amount of non-dairy, plant-based beverages sold increased 30% between 2010 and 2015.

No previous work directly studied values held by consumers and how those attitudes influence milk purchases.

To assess this, a survey was completed by 999 primary shoppers between 25 and 70 years old, 78% female and 22% male, who reported purchasing dairy milk, non-dairy beverage, or both at least two to three times per month.

Most consumers (87.8%) did not follow a specific diet or claim to be lactose intolerant (88.4%). Twenty-seven percent of consumers purchased one or both beverages more than once a week, 47.0% purchased one or both beverages once a week, and 25.0% purchased one or both beverages two to three times per month.

Consumers ranked fat as the most important attribute in dairy milk, whereas sugar level was most important for non-dairy beverages. Dairy milk consumers reported a preference for 2% or 1% fat, and almost 70% of dairy milk sales in 2014 were reduced or fat-free milk.

Non-dairy consumers preferred plant beverages that were naturally sweetened or had no added sugar. Almond beverage was the most desirable plant-derived beverage, representing more than 65.0% of non-dairy beverages sold in 2014.

Protein had universal appeal for both milk and non-dairy beverages, with higher utility scores for higher levels of protein content.

“We found that consumers choose milk based on habit or because they like the flavor. Milk that is appealing in flavor could convince nondairy beverage drinkers to consumer more dairy milk; likewise, lactose-free milk or milk from grass-fed cows might also be appealing,” lead author Kara McCarthy said.

“By further focusing consumer education on trust building as well as nutrition, farm practice, and animal welfare, the appeal of dairy milk could be broadened.”

With the results of this study in mind, along with the many features attractive to consumers of both dairy milk and non-dairy beverages, the dairy industry can more effectively market and position milk as well as dispel any misconceptions

This AgScience post is based on a report posted by Science Daily (HERE).

Journal Reference:

K.S. McCarthy, M. Parker, A. Ameerally, S.L. Drake, M.A. Drake. Drivers of choice for fluid milk versus plant-based alternatives:What are consumer perceptions of fluid milk? Journal of Dairy Science, 2017.

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Wisconsin study shows decisions on pasture use and feed management affect GHG emissions

American researchers have created a study to compare the effects of feeding strategies and the associated crop hectares on the greenhouse  gas emissions from certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin.

According to a Science Daily report on the work (HERE) consumer demand for organic milk in the US recently surpassed the available supply. Sales of organic products reached US$35 billion in 2014 and continue to rise.

As farms convert  to organic production to meet demand, feeding strategies will need to be adapted to meet USDA National Organic Programme requirements.

Agriculture accounts for around 9% of total US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The US dairy industry has committed to a 25% reduction of GHG by 2020 relative to 2009. By varying diet formulation and the associated crop production to supply the diet, farmers can affect the quantity of GHG emissions of various feeding systems.

The study to compare the effects of feeding strategies and the associated crop hectares on GHG emissions of certified organic dairy farms was developed by researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

“Herd feeding strategies and grazing practices influence on-farm GHG emissions not only through crop production, but also by substantially changing the productivity of the herd,” lead author Di Liang said.

“Managing more land as pasture, and obtaining more of the herd feed requirements from pasture, can increase the GHG emissions if pasture and feed management are not optimised to maintain milk production potential.”

The authors identified four feeding strategies that typified those used on farms in Wisconsin, with varying degrees of grazing, land allocated for grazing, and diet supplementation. A 16-year study was used for robust estimates of the yield potential on organically managed crop land in southern Wisconsin as well as nitrous oxide and methane emissions and soil carbon.

Production of organic corn resulted in the greatest nitrous oxide emissions and represented about 8% of total GHG emission;. Corn also had the highest carbon dioxide emissions per hectare.

Emissions decreased as the proportion of soybeans in the diet increased, because soybeans require less nitrogen fertilization than corn grain.

More intensive grazing practices led to higher GHG emission per metric tonne. But  allowing cows more time on pasture resulted in lower emissions associated with cropland. Manure management and replacement heifers accounted for 26.3% and 20.1% of GHG emissions.

Based on their findings, the authors determined that a holistic approach to farm production is necessary. Organic dairy farms with well-managed grazing practices and adequate levels of concentrate in diet can both increase farm profitability and reduce GHG emission per kilogram of milk.

“Consumers often equate more dependence on pasture with environmentally friendly farming, but this study demonstrated that low milk production per cow is a major factor associated with high GHG emission,” said Journal of Dairy Science Editor-in-Chief Matt Lucy.

“Managing both pasture and supplementation to increase milk production per cow will substantially reduce GHG emissions.”

Factors such as dairy cow breed and non-production variables may also have an effect on GHG emissions on organic dairy farms. Thus, future studies are needed in this area to elucidate the effects of grazing management and feeding systems.

With more research, however, crop and milk production, GHG emissions, and farm profitability can be optimised on organic dairy farms.