Breeding new fast-growing grass varieties that produce more seeds and are resistant to drought, pests, grazing and disease may inadvertently be creating the next generation of invasive weeds, an international team of researchers has warned.
As the global demand for dairy and beef escalates, farmers are increasingly seeking ways to reap greater productivity from their pastures.
The problem, according to Philip Hulme, Professor of Plant Biosecurity at Lincoln University and lead researcher at the Bio-Protection Research Centre, is that in making grass varieties more robust, they are more prone to becoming a problem for the environment.
The researchers have made four biosecurity recommendations for government, industry and researchers.
Hulm, who has co-authored a research paper published in the latest edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, said new varieties can invade adjacent areas and spread across the landscape, or they can interbreed with existing invasive weeds.
“Pasture species such as ryegrass and fescue may not strike people as major threats to the environment but they are regarded by the Department of Conservation as environmental weeds,” explains Professor Hulme.
The research team has highlighted the need for government and agribusiness to ensure pasture plants are of low risk to the environment.
“Pasture is big business in New Zealand and a large part of our economic success arises from agribusiness developing ever more productive or persistent varieties,” says Professor Hulme. “As a result there is a clear conflict between economic and conservation outcomes.”
“It is probably those varieties being developed for greater persistence, especially in the face of drought, that might pose the greatest future risk,” suggests Professor Hulme.
The researchers’ biosecurity recommendations are: governments should manage a list of prohibited varieties (not just species); develop a weed risk assessment; ensure rapid detection and control of invasive weeds; and develop an industry-pays system.
The Bio-Protection Research Centre is a Centre of Research Excellence funded by the Tertiary Education Commission. It was established in 2003 to drive innovation in sustainable approaches to pest, pathogen and weed control. The Centre has five partner institutes: AgResearch, Lincoln University, Massey University, Plant & Food Research and Scion, with members throughout New Zealand.
This post is based on a joint press statement.